- Crop Rotation
- Industrial Farms
By applying the same chemical engineering that produced modern explosives to agriculture, the agro industry was born. It allows the construction of Industrial Farms, which massively boost the food production from farmland and can support a surge in the size of cities.
The industrial agriculture of the late 20th century developed out of two different trends: mechanization and industrial chemistry. Mechanization of farming started in the 19th century, when Cyrus McCormick invented a mechanical reaping machine (horse-drawn) in 1831, followed by a Combined Harvester, also horse-drawn, developed by Moore and Hascall in 1836. By the last decade of the century, steam-powered tractors were towing these machines and others like them. By mechanizing the age-old laborious process of reaping and harvesting, and later of ploughing and planting, power equipment revolutionized farming as completely as power tools had revolutionized manufacturing.
In 1909 Fritz Haber synthesized Ammonia, he principle ingredient in artificial fertilizer. From then on throughout the twentieth century artificial fertilizers, soil enrichers, pesticides, fungicides, plant foods, and other chemical aids multiplied the yields from farms many times over. By the last half of the twentieth century, a single American or European farmer taking advantage of the advances in agricultural mechanization and chemistry of the previous 100 years could produce more than 20 farmers could have in 1800, and produced it with less labor and on less acreage.