New Advance




  • Masonry
  • Writing



  • Fortification
  • Arena
  • Forbidden City


Engineering in the Ancient Age was mainly the application of a few simple discoveries, but frequently in new ways. These included defense, in the construction of the Fortifications to cover the borders, the Arena Improvement to entertain the masses, and the architectural Wonder of the Forbidden City.


Engineering is the application of theoretical knowledge to the building of practical things. The earliest engineer (architectural) known to history was probably the Egyptian Imhotep, who designed and supervised the construction of the first large stone structure in the world, the step pyramid of Zoser around 2980 BC. The pre-eminent engineers of the ancient world, however, were the Romans. Applying Greek and Middle Eastern mathematics, geometry, architectural and construction techniques, they refined and perfected the construction of all kinds of practical structures. Using practical field techniques of wood and earth moving, the Roman Army could throw up an entrenched walled camp in a few hours, and many such camps became permanent fortifications the traces of which are still visible today. Using Concrete, which they invented, and monumental stone working which included the arch and pedestal, they built huge entertainment venues, the Arenas such as Vespasian’s Amphitheater that dwarfed anything ever built before. On the other side of the Eurasian land mass, Chinese architects and engineers built the Forbidden City, a vast complex of gardens, palaces, and administrative offices that made manifest in stone and wood the magnificence of the Chinese Imperial Court.